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How can waste classification help improve the efficiency of incinerators
Hits: 413 times Added: 2019-7-4 [ Print ] [ Return ] [ Favorite ]
In developed countries, waste incineration is indeed a very mature treatment model. The waste incineration method has high treatment efficiency, small footprint, good reduction effect, fast stabilization speed, and waste heat for power generation. For cities where land is tight, population density is high, and total waste increases, waste incineration is almost the only alternative to traditional landfill methods. At the peak of construction, the number of waste incinerators in Japan was as high as 6,000. Countries such as Sweden, Denmark, France and Luxembourg rely heavily on waste incineration models.

项目的背后,真正的担心不是二噁英排放,而是垃圾分类实施不力。 Behind the vigorous promotion of the waste incinerator project, the real worry is not the dioxin emissions, but the poor implementation of waste classification. In the case of unclassified recycling and selection, garbage cannot be turned into waste. After entering the incineration plant, it is only inferior power generation materials. While enjoying government subsidies, this model also hides many hidden dangers.

At present, China is more and more emphasizing the importance of garbage classification. Now, a small number of cities have begun pilots for garbage classification. In the future, garbage classification will also be legislated to operate. There are many types of domestic garbage in our country, and the composition has changed greatly, seriously Control of the operation of the waste incineration plant. Waste is mixed without classification, including combustible materials such as plastic and paper, and non-combustible materials such as glass and metal. In this raw material environment, the incineration process is prone to agglomeration, low combustion rate, and even accidents such as flameout and shutdown, which directly lead to "slag and equipment loss".

The unsorted waste results in a significant increase in waste disposal and power generation costs. In urban domestic waste in China, there are many organic waste components in kitchen waste, and the water content of kitchen waste basically determines the water content of the waste. The high moisture content and strong adhesion of the waste make it difficult for the waste incineration plant to perform mechanical sorting and other pretreatment of the waste. At the same time, the high moisture content reduces the calorific value of the waste and it is impossible to achieve spontaneous combustion. It is necessary to add auxiliary fuels such as coal with high heating value.

Studies show that the average water content of Chinese municipal solid waste exceeds 50%, the average low-calorific value is only 4000kJ / kg, and the low-calorie value of incinerator fuel is 6000kJ / kg. The calorific value of municipal solid waste collected in Japan can be found. Up to 7000kJ / kg, stable incineration and high power generation efficiency.

For unsorted waste, waste incineration may cause secondary pollution even if the same technology and equipment are used abroad. For example, kitchen waste is the main source of N and Cl in municipal solid waste. This biomass waste increases pollution from incineration and heavy metal emissions.

Garbage is sorted and burned first, which also helps to control the production of carcinogen dioxin. Waste incineration produces dioxins. A necessary condition is the presence of chlorine. Chlorine-containing plastic products in garbage and more salty kitchen waste are "culprits" in dioxins. In addition, if the moisture content of the garbage is too high and there are no auxiliary measures, it is difficult to maintain the flue gas of the incinerator at a high temperature of 820 C or higher. ,